Wednesday, September 9, 2015

Teaching Emotional Control Strategies to Kids with Autism

I recently wrote a blog entry about why losing games can be overwhelming to individuals in the autism spectrum.  Now for a few ideas about helping kids gain emotional control.  These strategies are one step toward calming and teaching emotional regulation.  Consider yourself and your child to be a detective about what helps in what types of situations. 

  • Catching the Meltdown Before It Happens
It is often difficult for an individual in the spectrum to know how upset they are becoming or may become in certain situations.  As the parent of a young child, you may need to watch for signs and triggers ahead of time and teach your child more about his triggers and emotions.  You might say "You are angry right now" or "It has been a long day.  You need some quiet time."  You may pay attention to your child's schedule to make sure there are not too many difficult things in one day (e.g., don't schedule a school test and a dentist appointment the same day).  

It can be helpful to use pictures to help your child identify how he is feeling (e.g., he could point to green for good, yellow could be "watch out, getting stressed" and red could be "feeling completely overwhelmed").   
  • Using Sensory Strategies for Calming
Once your child is overwhelmed, using verbal reasoning and requests is often very difficult and unsuccessful.  It is hard for her to think about how to comply with your commands (e.g., "Get a grip, it's not that bad" or "Stop crying, this is embarrassing).  It is also very difficult to attach words to the experience.  She is likely to be unable to verbally explain what is happening (e.g., "Why are you so upset!  What happened?").  Instead, you could use physical strategies that involve the senses to help her body calm.  Some strategies might include using deep pressure (e.g., bear hugs, pillow sandwiches with your child in between for a nice squeeze, or a weighted blanket), vestibular input (e.g., a ride in the car, being pushed in a swing), visual input (e.g., repetitive visual things like a lava lamp), auditory input (e.g., ear phones with nature sounds or favorite music), joint input (e.g., carrying something heavy, pulling on something), or smells (e.g., essential oils like lavender).  This can help with calming, even when the individual can't use thoughts or language.
  • Time Out for Calming Instead of Punishment
You can teach the child that when they begin to feel overwhelmed, they may need to regroup in a quiet space before trying to solve the actual problem.  Having time away from chaos and strong emotions, can help him let go of some of the stress before interacting with others again.  Some separation can be initially helpful.  In fact, for individuals with ASD who are older, I have even seen people decide they do better speaking to others about difficult things using email rather than face to face.  If this is a strategy decided on ahead of time that actually helps introduce helpful distance and prevent loss of emotional control, it may be very helpful. 
  • Have a Calming Strategy that you Practice Ahead of Time
Giving your child direction during a meltdown is often more overwhelming than calming.  However, if there is a calming strategy that the child knows about ahead of time, she can learn to use the strategies piece by piece.  For example, one strategy might be to use the breath for calming, like blowing bubbles or blowing LEGOs across the room with a straw (sometimes blowing out is more calming than deep breathing, especially for anxiety).  The individual may have a basket of things for calming (e.g., squeeze balls, ear phones with music, heavy blanket) or may have a binder with pictures of strategies in it (e.g., pictures of swinging or meditation) that they can then go and participate in.  

You will find that thinking about strategy rather than punishment is more effective and comfortable for you and your child!